Varicose veins: types, causes and symptoms

A phlebologist examines the lower part of a patient with varicose veins

The first signs of the development of varicose veins are often associated with normal fatigue, they neglect a visit to the doctor, and continue to lead their normal lifestyle, worsening the condition of the veins. Complications of varicose veins develop very quickly. Most of those who require surgical intervention see a specialist. To this day, everyone tries to heal themselves with the help of tinctures and tablets.

How not to bring yourself to a depressing situation and take the necessary steps in a timely manner? First, you need to understand when to see a doctor. Second, see a doctor as soon as you know it's time. This is not the time to wait a bit and see what happens to the veins. Any delay can burden you. The article contains a description of the symptoms of various types of varicose veins, which will help determine whether you have a suspicion of the disease.

Why do varicose veins appear

If you know the causes of varicose veins, then you can protect yourself in a timely manner by taking preventative measures.

  • Descendants.If there is a relative who suffers from varicose veins, there is a possibility that you will also suffer from it. By itself, varicose veins are not inherited, but you can inherit the structural features of the veins or, for example, the tendency to be overweight, which will affect the occurrence of problems with the veins.
  • Pregnancy.During pregnancy, a woman's body produces an increase in the amount of progesterone, which loosens the walls of the veins. They could not do their job and his blood stopped. Also, during pregnancy, a woman’s weight increases and the amount of blood circulating increases, which increases the load on the veins.
  • Overweight.The large weight produces a constant load on the lower limbs. More difficult for blood vessels to supply blood to the heart and lungs, blood stagnates, and veins dilate. As a result, venous expansion occurs.
  • Wear uncomfortable clothes and shoes.If the shoes are too tight and tight, it prevents blood from circulating in the feet normally. The same goes for clothes that are too tight.
  • Old age.Age -related negative changes occur in the walls of blood vessels. They lose elasticity, blood vessels stretch and blood collects and stagnates in them.

How to understand that varicose veins develop on the legs

Many believe that the first signs of varicose veins are spider veins, swollen vein areas and other external manifestations. But the pathology is very dangerous and for so long disguised as normal fatigue in the lower part of the leg, does not show itself on the outside in any way.

Venous valves are affected by varicose veins

Signs of varicose vein development that you should look out for:

  • Frequent muscle cramps.Since blood does not circulate in the required mode through the veins, stagnation occurs and, as a consequence, oxygen starvation of the tissues. These factors lead to the onset of seizures.
  • Unhealthy skin color on the feet.Lymph and blood circulate poorly in the affected area of the lower leg. The skin color here becomes brighter with dark spots. As the disease progresses, these spots begin to redden, swell and itch. If you do not start treatment, the chances of trophic ulcers increase significantly.
  • Feet and ankles start itching for no reason.. . . In the ducts close to the skin, transformation occurs due to stagnation of blood and lymph. Metabolic products are not removed from this area properly, which causes itching, burning, peeling of the skin of the feet and excessive dryness.
  • Tingling, numbness of the limbs.In the early stages of varicose veins, the legs may numb for no reason. The patient will feel a tingling sensation. These symptoms occur due to poor joint function, tissue hypoxia. Normal motor activity is disrupted, due to a lack of fluid between the articular tissues. If numbness becomes common, then a visit to the doctor should not be delayed.
  • Swollen. . . When the valve does not function at full force, fluid accumulates in the intercellular space, and edema occurs. For people prone to varicose veins, it is recommended to measure the number of feet in the morning and evening. The reason for sounding the alarm and visiting a phlebologist is an indicator change of 1 cm upwards in the evening.
  • Pain in the legs after a static position.If a person sits for a long time or just stands, and after that the lower part of the leg begins to ache and "buzz", then you should pay special attention to this factor.

In the final stage, dilated veins are clearly visible on the skin of the lower leg with a background of swelling and pain. During the period of decompensation in the last stage of varicose veins, signs of thrombophlebitis and trophic ulcers may appear.

Varicose veins occur due to wearing high -heeled shoes

Why reticular varicose veins are considered a mild form

Varicose veins in the lower part of the legs have a separate type - reticular varicose veins. This is common in women and is considered a mild manifestation of varicose veins, because in this case only thin veins expand.

Reticular varicose veins are often referred to as cosmetic, because their main symptoms are external manifestations in the form of vascular networks in the calves and in the thigh area. Reticular varicose veins occur most often due to wearing high -heeled shoes, serious physical activity and taking hormone pills.

Although reticular varicose veins are mild, they must be treated - this will avoid possible complications. Treatment of this type of pathology is performed with the help of venotonic ointments and gels, drug therapy, and lasers. Traditional surgical operations performed with lasers, especially scalpels, are rarely used.

What are the symptoms of pelvic varicose veins

If venous blood in the pelvic area is stagnant, then this can lead to the appearance of varicose veins in this area. She may experience stagnation due to inactive work, mechanical compression of the veins by the enlarged uterus, uncontrolled intake of hormone medications. The causes of the appearance of dilated veins in the pelvic area can also be malnutrition, constipation, hernias, problems in the genitourinary field, pathology of the pelvic organs, nerve disorders and insomnia.

Most often, the disease occurs in women. Pregnant women and women during menopause are at risk. The pathology manifests itself as a painful sensation in the perineum area, which becomes stronger after hypothermia or prolonged stay in a sitting position. Also, in the perineum area, venous tuberculosis is formed, the process of urination becomes painful, during and after sexual intercourse, unpleasant sensations are observed.

All these signs require immediate referral to a specialist, because without adequate therapy, varicose veins in the small pelvis are exacerbated by complications: thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers. Pathology is diagnosed primarily by ultrasound, if there are already no external signs.

How to determine the appearance of varicocele

Varicocele is a purely male varicose vein, which is an enlargement of the spermatic nerve veins. Signs of varicocele will include pain and heaviness in the groin area, a decrease in one of the testicles, an increase in the veins under the skin, and frequent urination.

Why pathology occurs:

  • spermatic cord vein valves not functioning properly;
  • insufficient connective tissue that forms the venous wall;
  • underdeveloped spermatic cord valves and testicles;
  • disturbances in the formation of the inferior genital veins while still in the womb.

If a man has high abdominal pressure, constipation often occurs, he spends a lot of time sitting or standing, exposing his body to excessive physical activity, then the risk of varicocele increases significantly. The disease has three degrees of severity: initially, the veins can be felt only in the standing position, in the second stage, the seal can be felt even lying down, and in the third stage, swelling of the spermatic cord veins in the testicles can be seen with the naked eye.

Varicocele - dilation of the veins of the spermatic cord

The stage when the testicles are closed with many groups of veins is considered complete and requires emergency treatment. After all, neglected varicocele is often the cause of male infertility, thrombosis, thrombophlebitis and other complications. Pathology is diagnosed by external examination, ultrasound, MRI or CT. Adult patients are often prescribed spermograms to determine sperm activity and exclude asthenozoospermia.

What are internal varicose veins

With internal varicose veins, not superficial, but the internal veins are affected. The usual external signs in the form of prominent veins and vascular networks are often absent. Pathology is indicated by pain in the lower part of the leg, which is often mistaken for superficial fatigue. The elderly are prone to internal varicose veins, whose deep veins change due to age -related changes, become less flexible and elastic, and the valve system suffers from wear and tear. If the pathology is not treated, boils form on the lower part of the foot, which is difficult to cure.

Internal varicose veins are very difficult to recognize in the early stages. Therefore, every person with a genetic predisposition to the disease is recommended to undergo a preventive ultrasound examination at least once a year. Since the deep vein is surrounded by muscles on all sides, it is impossible to detect its deformation by visual inspection.

Prominent dilated veins - a sign of varicose veins on the lower leg

What are Varicose Veins Like?

At the beginning of the pathological development, a feeling of heaviness and fatigue in the legs is felt at the end of the day. Next, pain may appear, a sensation as if the leg is broken, the leg is swollen. All these symptoms can go away on their own after rest. But you can't delay going to the doctor. If you do not treat varicose veins of the legs at an early stage, then the disease will start to develop. First, spider veins and grids will appear, then varicose veins will also affect large veins. At this stage, the pain becomes persistent, the legs begin to swell more strongly, and muscle spasms appear.

Palpation of varicose veins in the legs

Complications against the background of varicose veins

If the treatment of varicose veins is not carried out or is not done in sufficient amounts, then sooner or later complications arise. This includes venous thrombosis. Blood clots form in the lumen of the vessel, leading to thrombophlebitis. The vascular wall becomes inflamed, and the thrombus plays a role as a time bomb, as it can erupt at any moment and clog important arteries. Thrombophlebitis develops especially rapidly after suffering from an infectious disease, during air travel, difficult childbirth and complex surgical interventions.

Deep vein thrombosis in the lower part of the leg is very rapid. Within a few hours, inflammation occurs in the veins, the lower part of the leg becomes enlarged, swollen, and acquires a bluish color. With a little physical energy, a person feels acute pain, but rest does not bring complete relief.

Trophic ulcers occur due to violation of blood flow processes in tissues, resulting in necrosis and rejection of tissues. First, there is severe swelling, burning of the skin. The feet become as wet as the lymph seeps out, small boils first appear on the skin, which then develop into unhealed wounds.

Often, complications of varicose veins manifest themselves in the form of venous bleeding, which is sometimes impossible to stop without medical intervention. If a person with varicose veins is injured in a prominent vein area, lifting unbearable weights or playing sports, then the chances of a thin vein can rupture increase.